Children in the developed world have never enjoyed better medical care: mortality has decreased and many fatal diseases of the past can today be prevented or even cured. However, the current practice of pharmacotherapy in children does not reflect existing scientific knowledge and has come under scrutiny by paediatricians, pharmacists and regulatory authorities. In order to advance the development of medicines tailored to paediatric needs, US and EU legislators have taken action, and the WHO has initiated a global paediatric campaign. This book gives an overview over the worldwide activities that increasingly include children in the development of new medicines. Triggered by both a better understanding of how the child’s body develops as well as recent legislation in the USA and in Europe, this comprises dosing, ethics, age-appropriate pharmaceutical forms and clinical trials, to name just a few aspects. A wide spectrum of readers will profit from this book, including paediatricians, pharmacists, general practitioners and health care professionals involved in child care and paediatric research, clinical trial personnel, patient advocacy groups, ethics committees, politicians, parents and interested lay persons.